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Symptoms and treatment of Addison’s disease

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What is Addison’s Disease?

Addison’s disease is caused by the damage to the adrenal shell and by the inability of the adrenal glands to produce enough steroid hormones called cortisol and aldosterone.

Cortisol and Low Aldosterone
Cortisol regulates the body’s reactions to stressful conditions. It also regulates the body’s use of carbohydrates, proteins and fats and helps maintain blood pressure, cardiovascular function, and controls inflammation. Aldosterone aids in the regulation of sodium and potassium minerals in the body, assists in providing salt and water balance to the kidneys and helps to control blood volume and blood pressure. In the absence of aldosterone hormone, kidneys cannot provide water and salt balance, and blood pressure decreases.

Addison’s disease is a rare disease in every 100,000 people and can be seen in men and women of all ages. People with Addison’s disease can continue their normal life as long as they take their medication.

Causes of Addison’s Disease

There are two types of Addison’s disease: primary adrenal insufficiency and secondary adrenal insufficiency. For accurate and complete treatment, your doctor will determine what type of disease you have.

Causes of Primary Kidney Abortion

Addison’s disease often occurs when the immune system attacks the adrenal glands. Therefore, this is an autoimmune disease. In an autoimmune disease, the body’s immune system mixes an organ or region with a virus, bacteria or external aggressor.

Other Preliminary Causes

Acylation of glucocorticoids for long periods of time

Infections in the body can cause Addison’s disease. Fungal infections may also contribute to the disease.

Uncontrolled growth of cancer and tumors

Blood diluents used to control coagulation can affect the adrenal glands over time.

Causes of Secondary Renal Abortion

Secondary adrenal insufficiency occurs when adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) does not produce adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). ACTH sends signals to the adrenal glands when it will release hormones.

Secondary adrenal insufficiency can also be seen in the absence of corticosteroid drugs that should be used with doctor’s advice.

In addition, cancer patients and patients with tuberculosis are also at risk of developing Addison’s disease.

Symptoms of Addison’s Disease

chronic fatigue and weakness in muscles

increase in skin pigmentation (skin becomes darker)

weight loss, decreased appetite and difficulty digestion

reduced heart rate and blood pressure

low blood sugar


pain in the mouth area

salt request



irritability and depression


increased sensitivity to hot and cold

Some of these symptoms may indicate other conditions than Addison’s disease. Because the symptoms of Addison ‘s disease progress very heavily, and the symptoms quickly deteriorate when a physically stressed disorder such as another disease, surgery or accident appears. This is called Addison syndrome. Therefore, 1 in 4 people of Addison patients understand that they are sick when they encounter this syndrome. Addison syndrome should be treated medically immediately or it may be fatal.

Symptoms of Addison syndrome include:

Severe pain in the abdomen, abdomen or legs

Excessive fluid loss following severe vomiting and diarrhea

Rapidly falling blood pressure

Loss of consciousness

Kidneys become unable to function

Diagnosis of the disease

The doctor applies a physical test after asking for your symptoms and symptoms. Potassium and sodium levels are also measured. In other tests, hormone levels are detected as imaged.

Addison’s Disease Treatment

Because Addison’s disease is caused by the lack of hormones produced from adrenal glands, the treatment of the disease is carried out by supplementing these missing hormones. This is carried out by taking 1 or 2 drugs a day depending on the condition or severity of the disease from hydrocortisone steroid hormone tablets. If necessary, aldosterone is replaced with a synthetic steroid called fludrocortisone acetate, which is taken once daily as a tablet. These medications can sometimes be dosed by a doctor, for reasons such as stress, infection, surgery or disability.

In Addison’s disease, medications are always successful. Patients who continue their treatment regularly continue their normal lives without problems. But in order to prevent the time to forget the medication, the patient’s ID cards should be used for signaling medical purposes and for emergency situations. Even a single dose can be dangerous.

In patients with Addison syndrome or crisis, prescribed salt, liquid and glucocorticoid hormones are given to the patient by injection method.

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