What is Anaphylaxis?

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Anaphylaxis is a life-threatening systemic reaction. It is mainly due to the mechanisms mediated by our immune system and the main histamine and some substances secreted from mast cells and basophils.

Because of life-threatening reactions, treatment should be done rapidly. Therefore, the patient or the people around him / her (mother / father, friends) should have knowledge about the treatment of the disease. Anaphylaxis develops mostly due to nutrients, drugs and bee stings.

In addition to avoiding allergens that cause anaphylaxis, the most important step of the treatment, adrenalin, should be done first. For this reason, patients or relatives should carry an adrenaline auto-injector with them. It is very important that patients with anaphylaxis carry descriptive signs (necklace, bracelet, etc.) in order to provide easy identification and rapid treatment.

Many allergens around us can cause anaphylaxis.

Foods (cow’s milk, eggs, nuts, fish, shellfish, etc.)


Insect stings (honey bee, wasp etc.)


In addition to allergens, physical activity may cause anaphylaxis. This is defined as exercise-induced anaphylaxis. When the factors causing anaphylaxis cannot be identified, the definition of anaphylaxis (idiopathic) is used. The environmental factors that cause anaphylaxis must be revealed by your doctor, who is an expert in allergy and immunology.

What are the signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis?

Anaphylaxis develops very rapidly. Anaphylaxis may occur within minutes after exposure to responsible allergen. In some cases, clinical signs of anaphylaxis appear later in hours, ie within hours.

Clinical findings

Skin findings are most common.

Redness, itching, swelling and feeling of skin

Respiratory system

Nasal discharge, sneezing, shortness of breath, cough, chest congestion and wheezing, severe cases of cyanosis (cyanosis) can be seen.

Circulatory system

Blood pressure drop, palpitation, decreased or increased number of pulses, dizziness, weakness and shock may occur in severe cases.

In the digestive system

Swelling of the mouth and throat, difficulty in swallowing, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach cramps can be seen.

What are the causes of anaphylaxis?

Anaphylaxis occurs mostly due to exposure to allergens. This encounter consists of oral food, intramuscular or intravenous drugs, bee and insect stings, and allergens taken by the skin and the respiratory tract.

Factors causing anaphylaxis;



Insect Stings



Radiocontrast materials,


Sometimes anaphylaxis occurs with the combination of some factors. For example, patients who consume nutrients that are smoothly allergic, then develop anaphylaxis when they exercise. Although this condition is seen less, it is more common in adolescence and girls. In other words, when they do not exercise, these patients consume the food they are allergic to. It is defined as anaphylaxis associated with exercise-induced foods.

Anaphylaxis Treatment

The most important step of the treatment and the first drug to be used is ADRENALINE. Adrenaline, which is life-saving, should be made into the muscle.

Since anaphylaxis is a sudden and life-threatening reaction, it should be competed against time. Adrenalin should be rapidly administered intramuscularly. You may not have enough time to wait for a health care team or to go to a medical facility. This application is the most important

stage connecting you to life. For this reason, self-injecting adrenaline auto-injectors (adrenalin auto injector) were performed without any need of patients. Each patient or patient relative must have an adrenalin auto-injector. These injectors which are single-use should be made by the patient in the thigh area (also through the dress). It should then apply to the nearest health care facility to continue its treatment.

In addition to medical treatment for patients with anaphylaxis, it is important to ensure that the patient does not fall into the same condition. This stage is very important for patients.


Avoidance of allergens;

Allergens that cause anaphylaxis should be identified by the allergy and immunology specialist. Patients should also avoid these allergens. When patients with drug allergies go to a physician, he / she should tell the doctor about allergy. Patients with anaphylaxis due to bee sting should take the necessary precautions against bee stings in addition to vaccine treatment and adrenaline auto-injector transport.

Tag reading

The most important problem encountered in this subject is experienced in patients with food allergy. Patient and patient relatives should be well informed in terms of protection against food allergy. On the other hand, foods sold in grocery stores contain many different additives. This poses a significant danger to patients. Although this situation is controlled by legal regulations, the contents of the label should be read very carefully by the patient and their relatives.

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